Citizenship in a Global Age

The page below is ARCHIVED information related to a past initiative of Global Source Education, the parent organization of EduCulture. Though these are not current projects of EduCulture, we feel there are valuable resources and information for educational purposes.

Our 2006 Summer Retreat on Elementary & Secondary Education:

Citizenship in a Global Age

A Pacific Northwest Perspective

July 12-14, 2006

Suquamish, Seattle, & Bainbridge Island, WA

To seek a vision of education that brings together the need for wide-awakeness with the hunger for community, the desire to know with the wish to understand, the desire to feel with the passion to see. – Maxine Greene , The Dialectic of Freedom

 The school itself shall be made a genuine form of active community life, instead of place set apart in which to learn lessons. – John Dewey, The School and Society

By far, the better lessons in democracy would be had by systematic inquiry into the conditions of inequality, injustice, and exclusive privilege that undermine attempts at strong democracy in any locale or at any level of contemporary society. – Ed Mikel, Cultures of Curriculum

Social studies in Washington State contributes to developing responsible citizens in a culturally diverse, democratic society within an interdependent world. – Washington State Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction.

Former Mayor Kathryn Quade and other community leaders talk with participants about citizenship and education, Day One, Kiana Lodge, Suquamish, WA

Former Mayor Kathryn Quade and other community leaders talk with participants about citizenship and education, Day One, Kiana Lodge, Suquamish, WA

Program Highlights

Retreat Resource List on Citizenship and Education

How will what you have learned support, effect or deepen your practice as an educator?

Post-Retreat Questions & Food for Thought

Participants on Citizenship and Education

In collaboration with:

  • Antioch University Seattle
  • Elliott Bay Book Company
  • Global Source Educators’ Collaborative
  • Kiana Lodge
  • OSPI’s Social Studies and International Education Program
  • Olympic ESD 114
  • Seattle Labor Temple
  • Winslow CoHousing

Support for this program was provided by a generous grant from the Edwards Mother Earth Foundation.

Participants from:

  • Antioch University Seattle
  • Bainbridge High School
  • Breidablik Elementary School
  • Bush School
  • Evergreen High School
  • Girl Scouts Totem Council
  • Kamiak High School
  • Northwest School
  • The Overlake School
  • North Kitsap High School
  • North Kitsap Options Program
  • Sehome High School
  • West Sound Academy 

Presenters at our 2006 Summer Retreat

Willard Bill, Jr., Muckleshoot Tribe; Seattle Public Schools
Doris Brevoort, STAY (Skill Training for Afghan Youth)
Gail Davis, Breidablik Elementary School
Mary Fox, Breidablik Elementary School
Judy Friesem, Catalyst Mediation Services
Gene Medina, North Kitsap School District
Clarence Moriwaki, Japanese-American Nat’l Internment Memorial
Holly Myers, Elliott Bay Book Company
Shan Oglesby, Kamiak High School
Joleen Palmer, Stillwaters Environmental Learning Center
Caleb Perkins, Office of Superitendent of Public Instruction
Rob Purser, Suquamish Tribe, Kitsap Co. Council for Human Rights
Kathryn Quade, Mayor of Poulsbo
Christine Rolfes, Kitsap County Commissioner-elect
Jonathan Scherch, Antioch University Seattle
JD Sweet, Central Kitsap High School
Sarah van Gelder, YES! Magazine
Roberta Wilson, Winslow Cohousing
Program Directors
Kim Bush, Global Source, West Sound Academy
Jon Garfunkel, Global Source, Antioch University Seattle
Ed Mikel, Global Source, Antioch University Seattle

Insights and Ideas

Participants share what they have learned about citizenship and education

Theme for me – make a difference locally – accept the responsibilities that come with being a citizen that affect community – then go more globally – take what works locally or make that work to be a Global Citizen.

A Lot! Of specific value is the introduction to the variety of resources available, a sense of shared values with other educators, a wealth of materials to explore, digest and implement.

How important it is to define the elements of citizenship no matter how broad its application! (To self, to my community, to my “place”) Citizenship is about RELATIONSHIP! About RESPONSIBILITY! About SELF-KNOWLEDGE! Focusing on Global Citizenship requires courage, confidence and character. Think Globally act Locally is NOT a trite concept!

Citizenship means having a personal devotion to the local, national, global community. Standing up for the rights of others – and the environment.

I learned that my previous concept of citizenship was limited at best, though I consider myself well informed on the subject.

Citizenship is still a semantic issue. Our definitions are clouded by liberal, conservative, community, society and Western viewpoints.

That we have wildly different notions about what it is, and I don’t think I care if I have a specific definition. However, we/they/anyone defines it, I think if you teach to the heart of the person the “citizen” will follow.

That many schools are doing a very limited job of preparing students for engaged citizens, and don’t have structures that reflect democratic participation in their process. That principles of citizenship must be nurtured for social change. That a myriad of avenues exist to promote youth opportunities for greater participation and level of citizenship.

Reading of competing viewpoints on this have been more useful to me in regard to theory re: citizenship. I did learn, though, new resources for teaching my students about global issues.

Responsibility- opportunity. I have listened more than I have spoken because there was so much to absorb and I still have a curriculum to plan.

That my own civic ethic does not owe fealty to any polity – (where) my ethical locus lays. Community vs. polity affiliation. Notion of it, is a term lodged in current soc/political organizations of the world. Links to natural world relationships.

We need to “open” it up, or forget it altogether and move on.


How will what you have learned support, effect or deepen your practice as an educator?

Definitely will be more aware of what I am doing in the classroom and more intentional. I also will be more focused on what the students can do locally to become better (or more complete) citizens.

Ideas to use to enhance curriculum, introduce global citizenship issues as questions to apply to discussion on contemporary issues and to explore as writing prompts that connect these ideas to themselves and world issues that will affect their lives after high school. Invite community members to class.

Has widened and increased my investment in developing a broad base of partnerships!! Collaborators!! Wherever the source of those might be!

This question seems far too broad to answer in this small space. What I have learned will support, effect, and deepen my personal life and professional life in practice, or as Freire would say, in praxis.

Let me count the ways . . . 1. My resource “tool belt” has increased. 2. Access to GS library will enhance my curriculum greatly. 3. I now have a network of great colleagues & new friends. 4. I have been challenged to re-examine and think more deeply about a topic I am passionate about.

I already am vested in teaching citizenship, however, I now have new ways to approach it, new questions to share and a better global approach.

I’m still digesting, so I’m not certain, but the thinking is valuable to inspire change or reinforce that there’s a reason I do what I do.

Make me reconsider units, themes to promote citizenship values in instruction. I would like to invite colleagues to connect with global source. Greater self-empowerment to speak up and bring topic of how Sehome promotes citizenship in the dimensions we’ve discussed.



Parameters are wider than ever – possibilities are flooding my brain. Because performance art is so deeply engrained, I see theatre as a vital teaching tool and will incorporate that aspect.

Over my career my interest has continually spiraled in – in toward creating a community – in toward participating (finding a place) in different levels of local community. Here is the place my students live, here is where they must find a place; here, it seems to me, is where they ought to develop a sense of ownership and responsibility. Where then, does the “global” aspect of citizenship arise?

I will make all the more effort to “DO” democracy on a daily basis.


Post-Retreat Questions and Food for Thought

Do we approach teaching citizenship with a definition in mind, or do we keep it more open ended, leaving room for multiple definitions and an evolution of understanding? What are the advantages/disadvantages of each? Is there a balance to be reached in this?

How do we balance the rights of the individual with the desire for the common good?

How does our definition and understanding of citizenship change as we move from local to global?

How does our relationship with community impact our notions of citizenship? Is it possible to be disillusioned with certain aspects of a government or a place and still feel a connection and a responsibility to that place?

Does a community have to have a common understanding of a citizen in order to exist & thrive?

How are non-actions on the part of citizens valid (or in-valid) contributions to their community?

Who gets to be a citizen? Is it a born right or something you “earn”?

What do we need to know to be a citizen? How do we approach balancing the rights and responsibilities of citizenship, both for ourselves, as well as in our teaching?

How useful would the Universal Declaration of Human Rights be in helping us define citizenship? What might the applications of this look like in the classroom?

What is citizenship without a nation-state? How do we consider citizenship for those whose identity cannot be characterized by a specific political affiliation (i.e. refugees)?

How does our understanding of citizen reflect our connection to the global commons? What is the role of place-based education in teaching and learning about citizenship?

What is the role of Socratic dialogue in teaching and learning about citizenship?

How do healthy human relationships cultivate our sense of citizenship?

What perspectives are necessary for developing a broad diverse understanding of citizenship? How do we invite these different voices into our communities and classrooms? Where are you in the process of interacting with the “other”?

How grounded do we have to be in our own personal understanding (and practice!) of citizenship before we engage in these topics professionally? And vice versa, how much should our professional definitions and experience inform our personal civic activities?

Giving our students a voice, a stake in this conversation in the direction for change.

Intentionality, the role of articulating our needs and desires from our communities.

How much is the process of citizenship similar to the process of mediation.

Dominator versus partnership models of government. Can we sustain our way of life if we remain within an “empire” based system?

Retreat Resource List

This resource list on Citizenship and Education compiled before, during and after our 2006 Summer Retreat. It is by no means meant to be a complete or exhaustive bibliography on this subject.

Pre-Reading for Participants:

Parker, W. C. (2005). Teaching Against Idiocy. Phi Delta Kappan.

Reading list compiled by Global Source Network: 

Apple, M. & Beane, J. (1995). Democratic Schools. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Ayers, W., Hunt, J.A. & Quinn, T. (Eds.), (1998). Teaching for social justice. New York: The New Press.

Ayers, W. (2004). Teaching toward freedom: Moral commitment and ethical action in the classroom. Boston: Beacon Press.

Banks J.A. (1997). Educating citizens in a multi-cultural society. New York: Teachers College Press.

Banks J.A. et al. (2005). Democracy and diversity: Principles and concepts for educating citizens in a global age [Also available in digital video]. Center for Multicultural Education, College of Education, University of Washington, Seattle.

Banks J.A. (ed). (2004). Diversity and citizenship education: Global perspectives. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Beyer, L.E. & Apple, M.W. (1998). The curriculum: Problems, politics and possibilities. Albany, NY: State U. of New York Press.

Boulding, E. (1988). Building a global civic culture: education for an interdependent world. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse U. Press.

Bruner, J. (1996). The culture of education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.

Buck, S. & Ostrom, E. (1998) The Global Commons: An introduction. Washington, DC.: Island Press

Coles, R. (1977). The moral intelligence of children. New York: Random House.

Coles, R. (1986). The political life of children. Boston: The Atlantic Monthly Press.

Cortes, C. E. (2000). The children are watching: How the media teaches about diversity. New York: Teachers College Press.

Dewey, J. (2001). The school and society & the child and the curriculum. Mineola, NY: Dover.

Eisler, R. (2000). Tomorrow’s children: A blueprint for partnership education in the 21st century. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Gitlin, T. (2003). Letters to a young activist. New York, Basic Books

Greene, M. (1988). The dialectic of freedom. New York: Teachers College Press.

hooks, b. (1994). Teaching community: A pedagogy of hope. New York: Routledge.

Kohl, H. (2003) Stupidity and tears: Teaching and learning in troubled times. New York: The New Press.

Mikel, Ed. (2000) “Deliberating Democracy.” Chapter 6 in Joseph, P., Bravmann, S., Windschitl, M., Mikel, E., and Green, N. Cultures of Curriculum. Rahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Nemerowicz, G. & Rosi, E. (1997). Education for leadership and social responsibility. Washington, DC: The Falmer Press.

Nussbaum, M. (1997). Cultivating humanity. Boston: Harvard U. Press

Orr, D. (1994). Earth in mind. Washington, DC: Island Press.

Palmer, P.J. (2004). A hidden wholeness: The journey toward an undivided life. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Parker, W.C. (2003). Teaching democracy: Unity and diversity in public life. New York: Teachers College Press.

Reardon, B. (1988). Teaching for global responsibility. New York: Teachers College Press.

Rios, F.A. (Ed.) (1996). Teacher thinking in cultural contexts. Albany, NY: State U. of New York.

Selwyn, D. & Mayer, J. (2003). History in the present tense: Engaging students through inquiry and action. Portmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Shor, I. (1992). Empowering education: Critical teaching for social change. Chicago: U. of Chicago Press.

Suarez-Orozco, M. & Baolian Qin-Hillard, D. (2004). Globalization: Culture and education in the new millennium. Berkeley: U. of California Press.

Tye K. (Ed.) (1990). Global education: from thought to action. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Ury, W. (2000). The third side: Why we fight and how we can stop. New York: Penquin.

Wheatley, M.J. (2002). Turning to one another: Simple conversations to restore hope in the future. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler

Reading Recommendations From Retreat Participants

(T.B.) I’m presently reading a great book about global issues. It is High Noon by J.F. Rischard. When my brain can take it,

I’m also discovering a classic – Orientalism by Edward Said. While not particularly about global citizenship, it traces the history of how Western citizens came to have such absurd misunderstanding about Muslim citizens.

(S.D.) A great read aloud with students: “Seedfolks” (Joanna Colter Books) by Paul Fleischman and Judy Pedersen.

Also, I just found “Turning to one another: simple conversations to restore hope to the future” by Margaret J. Wheatley, and I am interested in more information about her and the dialogs she advocates.

(M.F.) Last Child in the woods, Richard Louv

Placed-Based education, David Sobel (Orion Press)

Into the field, David Sobel (Orion Press)

Beyond Eco-Phobia, David Sobel (Orion Press)

Sand County Almanac, Aldo Leopold

(K.H.) Global Voices: Contemporary Literature from the Non-Western World, Arthur Biddle, ed., Blair Press (PrenticeHall) 1995

19 Varieties of Gazelle: Poems of the Middle East, Naomi Shihab Nye, Greenwillow Press (HarperCollins), 2002

Voices in Wartime, Andrew Himes, ed., Whit Press, 2005

From Both Sides Now (poetry from the Vietnam War), Philip Mahony, ed., Scribner Poetry, 1998

Cracking India, Bapsi Sidhwa, (novel of the partition of India & Pakistan) Milkweed Editions William Heinemann Ltd.) 1991 (originally published as Ice-Candy Man)

A Fine Balance, Rohinton Mistry, (sad & powerful novel of caste in India).

Mountains Beyond Mountains: The Quest of Dr. Paul Farmer, Tracy Kidder

(G.J.) one of my favorite books is actually from Facing the Future–a curriculum–We use it every year and I love the discussion that it stimulates as well as the hands on activities.

(S.O.) The Politics of History, Howard Zinn

Deterring Democracy, Noam Chomsky

Philosophy in a Time of Terror, Jacques Derrida

Sovereign Power and Bare Life, Gorgio Agamben

The Metaphysical Club, Louis Menand

Cosmopolitanism and Friendship, Jacques Derrida

(T.S.) I had one book come to mind: Terry Tempest Williams, “The Open Space of Democracy,” published (I believe) by the Orion Society.

Titles Recommended by Holly Myers from Elliott Bay Book Company

The Librarian of Basra, Jeanette Winter

One World Many Religion, Mary Pope Osborne

Shattering Glass, Gail Giles

How I live Now, Meg Rosoff

Minister’s Daughter, Julie Hearn

Hanging on to max, Margaret Bechard

Words are not for Hurting, Elizabeth Verdick

Life Like Mine, in association with UNICEF

Diary of a Wombat, Bruce Whatley

I Pledge Allegiance, Bill Martin

We the Kids, David Catrow

Just Peace a Message of Hope, Mattie Stpanik

Amelia to Zora: 26 Women Who Changed the World, Cynthia Chin-Lee Peace

One Day, Jeremy Gilley

Extraordinary Ordinary People, Alan Govenar

Dear Miss Breed, Joanne Oppenheim

Chew on this, Eric Schlosser

Paths to Peace, Jane Wzalven

It’s Your World If You Don’t Like it Change It, Mikki Halpin

Just Kidding, Trudy Ladwig

Hey Kidz Buy This Book, Anne Elizabeth Moore

Lost and Found, Oliver Jeffers

The Boy Who Loved Words, Roni Schotter

If the World were a Village, David Smith

For Every Child (UNICEF)

Blood Red Horse, KM Grant

Minister’s Daughter, Julie Hearn

Stuck in Neutral, Terry Trueman

The Book Thief, Markus Zusak

Titles from Elliott Bay Global Issues and Current Events Book Club

Amos Oz, How To Cure a Fanatic

Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience

Alain de Botton, Status Anxiety

Henry Hobhouse, Forces for Change: An Unorthodox View of History

Vandana Shiva, Earth Democracy: Justice, Sustainability and Peace

John Dicker, The United States of WalMart

Robert Ingersoll, What’s God Got to Do with It? Or Free Thought Honest Talk and the Separation of Church and State

Gil Courtemanche, A Sunday at the Pool in Kigali

Svetlana Broz, Good People in an Evil Time: Portraits of Complicity and Resistance In the Bosnian War

Howard W. French, Continent for the Taking: The Tragedy and Hope of Africa

Tim Kasser, The High Price of Materialism

Tracy Kidder, Mountains Beyond Mountains

Richard Manning, Against the Grain

Nat Hentoff, The War on the Bill of Rights and the Gathering Resistance

Susan Jacoby, Freethinkers: A History of American Secularism

Paul Berman, Terror & Liberalism

Barbara Ehrenreich, Global Woman: Nannies, Maids, and Sex Workers in the New Economy

George Lakoff, Don’t Think of an Elephant

Susan George, Another World is Possible

Steven Hill Fixing Elections

Arundhati Roy, An Ordinary Person’s Guide to Empire

David Korten, When Corporations Rule the World

Robert Jensen, Citizens of the Empire

Rebecca Solnit, Hope in the Dark: Untold Histories, Wild Possibilities

Duff Wilson, Fateful Harvest: The True Story of a Small Town, a Global Industry and a Toxic Secret

Malcolm Gladwell, The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference

Sam Smith, Why Bother

Angela Davis, Are Prisons Obsolete

Chris Hedges, War Is a Force That Gives Us Meaning

Jane Jacobs, The Nature of Economies

Raymond Winbush, Should America Pay? Slavery and the Raging Debate Over Reparations

Cynthia Kaufman, Ideas for Action: Relevant Theory for Radical Change

Mike Gray, Drug Crazy

Marjane Satrapi, Persepolis

Richard Heinberg, The Party’s Over

Beverly Daniel Tatum, Why Are All the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria?

Barry Glassner, The Culture of Fear

Nancy Chang, Silencing Political Dissent Richard Holloway On Forgiveness

Vandana Shiva, Biopiracy: The Plunder of Nature and Knowledge

Michael Ignatieff, The Warrior’s Honor: Ethnic War and the Modern Conscience

Bibliography from the Socratic dialogue with Shan Oglesby

State of Exception, Giorgio Agamben

Means Without Ends, Giorgio Agamben

Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life, Giorgio Agamben

The Coming Community, Giorgio Agamben

Philosophy in a Time of Terror: Dialogues with Habermas and Derrida, Giovanna Borradori

The Politics of History, Howard Zinn

Community Connections to Presentations and Dialogues

Bainbridge Island Japanese American Community:

City of Poulsbo:

Common Threads:

Elliott Bay Book Company:

Huchoosedah Indian Education Program:

Muckleshoot Tribe:

North Kitsap School District:

OSPI Social Studies Program:

Stillwaters Environmental Center:

Suquamish Tribe:

Winslow Cohousing:

YES! Magazine: